of Korean Karate
Warning/Disclaimer: I know some Korean, but I am not affluent in it and I am certainly not a Korean myself. So if you are reading this as a person affluent in the Korean language and you for some reason disagree with my please do not hessitate to drop a comment below.
No eungyoung 응용 (application) is complete without a proper target. To make the most of each application you need to study the body and its weaknesses. In Taekwondo today this is something that is often overlooked as speed and power is often the only thing that is trained, and the target areas are vague and big as the scoring areas on the body (front of the body, and the sides of the body) and maybe the face/head. To be frank this approach is great for beginners as speed and power is what makes the technique work in the first place, and the target areas are the "poison at the tip of the arrow" not the arrow itself. If you miss you should still create enough damage or at least stun your opponent enough to get away or create a new opening. The study of target areas in Traditional Taekwondo, and its root arts (chinese Quan Fa, Shudokan, Shotokan and Shito Ryu Karate as well as Taek Kyon) is based on Oriental Medicine, often targeting Acupuncture points (and other "obvious weak points such as the eyes).
The Japanese Martial Arts call this study Kyusho Juitsu and this term is often translated into English as "Vital Point Manipulation". Vital points in KMA usually described under the term "Keupsoh" (급소) wich indeed is translated as "Vital Point" or "Spot". If you look up a Taekwondo Text containing a list of vital points the Korean term for vital points in this list is usually "Keupsoh". But the term Vital Point Manipulation has another Korean term that I have only rarely seen in Taekwondo (sometimes I have heard it in Hapkido wich in my opinion has preserved more of this concept in their mainstream than Taekwondo has), a term my own teacher used when he wrote his first two books on Taekwondo in the early 90s: "Heol Bob" 혈 법 (also seen as Hyul Bob, and Hyul Do Bob 혈 도 법). Both a few Hapkido books that I have as well as Wikipedia use Hyul Do Bob as the Korean term for Kyusho Juitsu. Heol/ Hyul 혈 is usually translated with "blood" but blood in oriental medicine and thought is very closely related to "Ki" 기, the energy or essense that oriental medicine is based on. Bob or bup 법 means "law", or "method".
In my teachers book from the early 90s he divided the vital point manipulation into two categories. The first was to use pressure to manipulate the points to force a response like pain or other reflexive responses but he notes that eventhough it is pressure the response could sometimes come from strikes as well. The term for (mainly using) pressure was "Ap Heol Bop" or 압 혈 법. He notes that you need to be very strong in your grip and fingers as well as being accurate to properly exploit the vital points using this method. Ap/ Ab 압 means pressure not to be confused with "Ap" 앞 or "Front" as in Front Kick (Ap Chagi). The other category is the striking of Vital Points wich he used the term "Tae Heol Bob" 태 혈 법(I am not sure about the Hangul for Tae 태 in this term so use the hangul at your own perril. The book only contained the terms in our latin alphabet, I have checked the hangul with dictionarys when I have been in doubt but I did not find that Tae 태 refered to striking anywhere. We do know that it is a term for kicking or using your foot as in Tae Kwon Do but as I said, the dictionaries failed me at this point).
So Vital points in Korean is Keupsoh 급소, vital point manipulation in general is Heol Bob" 혈 법 sometimes refered to as Hyul Do Bob 혈 도 법. Sub categories of vital point manipulation are vital point manipulation using pressure: Ap Heol Bop" or 압 혈 법. Vital point manipulation using strikes: Tae Heol Bob" 태 혈 법.
The last concept that was listed was Qinna (Chin Na) wich is a Chinese term covering a wide variety of grappling and joint manipulation. Quote from the article:
".... it involves, attacking the joints, seperating muscle from bone, bone from bone, tendons from bones and pain compliance. This is such a fundamental part of White Crane kung fu strategy that it would make up a large part of any Chinese influenced Kata. The Japanese term for this is Kansetsu-waza" - Ciarân McDonaldIt is a great explanation of how the term is used in the Chinese and possibly the Japanese arts except for choking and strangulation is also a part of the Quinna/ Chin Na term in the Chinese Arts. The Hanja for this term that the Chinese use is 擒拿. The first character means catch, arrest, seize and capture and the second character means take, hold, grasp. The Korean reading of this Hanja character is Geum na 금나. Now when I translated the Chinese Character into Korean through a computer program I got the Korean word for grab, seize, grappling or catch: Japki 잡기. I guess it is up to the practisioner if this is a term we want to use in our training and as long as you have the Chinese Character you can use Geum Na as a term to mean the same thing as in the Chinese Arts, but I do not think that a Korean non Martial Artist would understand only the korean writing on its own 금나. Japki 잡기 on the other hand is a normal word where "grappling" is a valid translation allthough not the most common use of the word (it most commonly is translated as "catch, grab or seize).
My personal suggestion for the mainstream is to use the current catch all phrase of grappling, choking, throwing well everything: Ho Sin Sul 호신술 translated it means the art of self defense. In my own opinion this term should be used for applied Taekwondo (not just the applications from the forms but the application of Taekwondo as a form of self defense). The current mainstream however (as far as I have seen heard and read) use this term to cover essentually the same things (and more) as the Chinese use their Quinna (Chin Na) term for. As the term is widely used today it might be the best and easiest to incorporate into mainstream teaching of Taekwondo.
And that concludes our short jurney into the "lost concepts" of Taekwondo. Please leave a comment if and tell me if you liked the series, or if you did not like it:-) Feedback is always great.