In the early days of Taekwondo (when it was known as Tang Soo, Tang Soo Do, or Kong Soo Do (the Korean reading of the Chinese characters for Tode and Karate) they used imported forms from mainly Japanese Karate. The first Kwan founded was the Chung Do Kwan that was founded in 1944. The founder had practised for many years in Shotokan Karate directly under Funakoshi and so the style taught was essentually a hard style of Karate with Karate Kata. The Chinese character (Hanja) used to write Kata in Karate ( 形) is pronounced "Hyung" in Korean. The word means shape or form and is not only used in the Martial Arts. In Japan you have Tea Kata, Flower Arrangement Kata, etc. It is in Japanese culture an ideal way to do things. As far as I know in the 1940s and 50s all Kwan used "Hyung" as a word for their forms no matter if it was the original forms of Karate or Quan Fa (Kwon Bup) or even their own inventions. General Choi Hong Hi (founder of Oh Do Kwan and later ITF) named his own creation "Hyung". For example "Chon Ji Hyung" etc. Only later (between 75-78) would he come up with ITF current name of their forms "Tul".
As you can see Hyung means form or shape and can be applied to all martial forms out there. It is just a name and there is no real difference like this is a "hyung" and that is a "Tul". Different organisations favour other words of course (if they did not then this post would not be needed). Hyung is then just the Korean pronounciation of the letter for Kata.
The WTF and Kukkiwon stylists uses a different word for their forms. Originally they too used Hyung. The first Koryo form from 1965ish was named Koryo Hyung. While the subsequent forms developed for the Kukkiwon style (Taegeuk and new Koryo) was named Poomse (품세). Until 1987 the Hanja for poomse was 品勢, and meant something like "Quality Shapes of Strength" or possibly "Flow of movements" (The last one being the closest to a literal translation on the term). In 1987 the Hangul (native Korean writing system) was changed to a pure Korean word, with no Hanja by changing the last Hangul letter from Se (세) to Sae (새). Now the meaning of Poomsae (품새) according to Marc Tadeshi is Appearance of movements, look of movements, poom meaning or implying movement, se meaning flow, and sae being a shortened form for looks, appearance . So these days Patterns or Forms in the Kukkiwon and WTF should be written poomSAE and not poomSE. Still there is nothing wrong with using Hyung, Tul, Poomse, and Poomsae interchangedly as they all describe essentually the same thing in the martial arts. Namely Martial Forms/Patterns. It is the different organisations that favour the different names, but they do point to the same activity. Therefore there is no real difference between a "Hyong" pattern and a "Tul" pattern as they both refer to martial forms, but I guess you could make a case on the following:¨
- Hyung refers to the original Karate forms that was imported to the Kwan as well as older forms before the word Poomse/Poomsae and Tul was used. As such they would most likely do their power generation by hip twist.
- Tul refers to the martial forms of the ITF as it is only they that seem to use this word. These forms use Sine Wave to do their power generation.
- Poomse was Kukkiwons own name for form until 1987 when it was changed to Poomsae. They both refer to the forms taught and practised by the Kukkiwon and WTF stylists.
|Segment of a martial form found in both|
Kata, Hyung, Tul and Poomsae
I hope you became a little wiser in regards of the terms and usage of Tul, Hyung, Poomse and Poomsae:-)
All the best.