Then as now the test consisted of Forms, Sparring and written tests. The sparring was done with Hogu (chest protector) and it was one round of three minutes. The written tests contents was not documented and untill I or someone else find another source for this we will not know the excact details of the written tests, wich is a shame really. It would be extremly interesting to know what the Kwan founder found so important that it made it into the written test, but I digress. One of the things I found most interesting was the list they provided on what forms the students had to do for the different ranks. There was a bunch of names that I just did not know what was, and I have been researching and studying Taekwondo for some time now. I have tried to investigate and see if there is any surviving forms behind these names as the list itself reveals little on how the forms looked like and its background. Anyway here is the list of forms that the students had to perform for 1 Dan in 1962:
- Naebojin 1 Hyung
- Chulgi 1 Hyung
- Kima 1 dan hyung
- Ja Won Hyung
- Hwarang Hyung
Most forms on the list was easy to find out but Ja Won Hyung has eluded me so far. If anyone reading this has any clue to any information on this form please leave a comment below. My best guess is that it is a form of Chinese origin and a part of the syllabus to the Kwan`s with a direct Chinese Kwon bup lineage. I checked Kim Soo`s Chayon Ryu list of forms as he has retained many of the forms that were once part of Taekwondo but in modern times has dissapeared from practise and I could not even find any information on it there.
The last form on the list for 1 Dan students is a well known form for any modern day red belt practising ITF derived Taekwondo. Hwarang. It was created in the 1950s as one of the first four patterns for the Oh Do Kwan. Choi Hong Hi has been given the credit for creating all the 24 (25 counting Kodang/Juche)) Chang Hon Hyung but for the most part he gave loose instructions to the Oh Do Kwan pioners and they came up with a patterns and Choi Hong Hi would approve of the form or make some changes to it. In Hwarang Hyungs case the pioneer doing the most of the work to develop it was Nam Tae Hi a master from Chong Do Kwan and a student of that Kwans founder; Lee Won Kuk. At that time Hwarang was designated a 1st Dan pattern, but in most Dojang under ITF today it is taught at red belt level.
For 2 Dan they choose 2 forms from the following list:
- Balhan Hyung Dae
- Chulgi 2 Hyung
- Naebojin 2 Hyung
- Kima 2 Dan Hyung
- Choong Moo Hyung
Chulgi/Naebojin/Kima 2 hyung is the same as Naihanchi/Tekki 2 Kata in Karate. as such it was created by Anko Itosu somewhere in the early 1900s to complement the first in the series. As a side note many sources on Choki Motobu say he only knew the first in the series, but there is also a motobu ryu version of the second in the series. In this version the grappling and throwing applications seem more apparent then in its Shotokan counterpart.
Choong Moo hyung is another Oh Do Kwan creation, and is still practised in ITF Dojangs today. It is usually learned prior to black belt (at red belt with black stripe level) in most Dojangs. Choong Moo Hyung was like Hwarang hyung developed by Nam Tae Hi in the 1950s.
Below are video excamples from all the martial forms I could find. I have chosen to use the Shotokan forms as done in Shotokan since most of the Kwan of old style Taekwondo had a Shotokan base. Therefore it is logical that the way they performed their patterns was similar to Shotokan. I know they included a few kicks here and there and if it was a stomping action in Karate they would often substitute the stomp with a kick. All in all they did their patterns remarkebly similar to Shotokan though. As for the martial forms currently practised in ITF I have included examples from present day ITF instead of trying to find old videos. They did use sine wave or knee spring in the early 60s but it was not nearly as pronounced as it is in the current version. Other than that the martial forms of ITF has been largely preserved since their creation.
I will try to keep video examples for each form in this post here, but in my experience youtube links are not something that lasts forever. It is therefore greatly appreciated if the readers would comment below if any of theese videolinks die out so I can get current links going:-) Thank you.
Heian 1 Kata/ Pyongahn 1 hyung
Heian 2 Kata / Pyongahn 2 Hyung
Heian 3 Kata / Pyongahn 3 Hyung
Heian 4 Kata / Pyongahn 4 Hyung
Heian 5 Kata / Pyongahn 5 Hyung
Chulgi/Naebojin/Kima 2 Hyung
Balhan Dae Hyung??? (Shotokan Bassai Dai)
Choong Moo Hyung